Integrated Circuit Yield
By way of a numerical example, I will demonstrate the constraints of defects,
in either the silicon wafer itself OR in the mistakes in lithography because
of dust, etc., on the yield of operable integrated circuits.
In addition to the diminishing size of transistors, the ability to use larger
pieces of silicon for ICs has contributed to the ever-increasing number
of transistors on a chip. (Recall Moore's law).
The increased "electronic real estate" comes from improvements in
the underlying crystalline structure of the silicon wafer AND
improvements in process control and lithography.
The numbers used in this example are not representative of actual numbers,
and should not be taken as those actually realized in the semiconductor
Other Online Resources
All Things Clean and Small,
from Education Programs at
to SCEN103 Home Page.
Comments, suggestions, or requests to email@example.com.
Last updated Nov. 14, 1996.
Copyright George Watson, Univ. of Delaware, 1996.