[logo] Integrated Circuit Yield

By way of a numerical example, I will demonstrate the constraints of defects, in either the silicon wafer itself OR in the mistakes in lithography because of dust, etc., on the yield of operable integrated circuits. In addition to the diminishing size of transistors, the ability to use larger pieces of silicon for ICs has contributed to the ever-increasing number of transistors on a chip. (Recall Moore's law). The increased "electronic real estate" comes from improvements in the underlying crystalline structure of the silicon wafer AND improvements in process control and lithography. The numbers used in this example are not representative of actual numbers, and should not be taken as those actually realized in the semiconductor industry.

Other Online Resources
All Things Clean and Small, from Education Programs at Intel


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Comments, suggestions, or requests to ghw@udel.edu.

"http://www.physics.udel.edu/~watson/scen103/wafer/"
Last updated Nov. 14, 1996.
Copyright George Watson, Univ. of Delaware, 1996.