Silicon, Circuits, and the Digital Revolution

Presentation to ALLSTEL Summer 1999

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Table of Contents

Silicon, Circuits, and the Digital Revolution

Technology on Campus 25 Years Ago

Everything is Made of Something
    Electron Energy Levels in Hydrogen
    The Visible Spectrum
    Electron Energy Levels

Electronic Band Structure in Solids
    Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors
    Column 4: Silicon among the elements
    Band Gaps of Column 4 Elements
    The Visible Spectrum
    Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors
    Concept Check: Band Gaps
    Band Gaps of Several Elements

Photoconductivity Applied to Photcopying
    Essentials of Xerography

Pure silicon - 4 valence electrons
    Column 5: one more valence electron
    Silicon doped with arsenic
    Column 3: one fewer valence electron
    Silicon doped with gallium
    Effect of doping on band structure
    Transistors are made from n- and p-type silicon.
    Concept Check: doped silicon

Building Transistors on Integrated Circuits
    MOSFET inverter
    CMOS inverter
    CMOS fabrication
    CMOS NAND gate
    Adder circuit

Moore’s Law for Intel Microprocessors

Penetration rates of major consumer products in U.S. households

Author: George Watson


Course Home Page:

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Additional Resources:
The Transistor from PBS
How Transistors Work from Intel
How Chips Are Made from Intel
Making Semiconductors at IBM
The Semiconducting Manufacturing Process by Fullman-Kinetics
How Semiconductors Chips Are Made by Micron

Fabrication of pn diode, from The Semiconductor Applet Service
Ion Beam Implantation, list of links
Semiconductor Manufacturing 101 from Red Herring